Geography of Dhanbad

Dhanbad popularly known as ‘The Coal Capital of India’ is located in Jharkhand State in Eastern part of India. Earlier, this city was known as ‘Dhanbaid’. It is one of the 24 districts and most famous industrial cities of Jharkhand State. Dhanbad is famous for its coal mines and major industrial establishments. 

It also boasts of being one of the major commercial hubs in east India. It is located between 23.37 degrees and 24.4 degrees north and 86.50 degrees east. It has an average elevation of 761 feet (232 m).

Geography of Dhanbad

Geographically, Dhanbad district is spread over an average area of 2086 sq km extending about 24 km in length from north to south direction and stretching around16 km in breadth from east to west direction. It has one subdivision named as Dhanbad Sadar and 8 blocks viz. Dhanbad, Jharia, Baghmara, Tundi, Nirsa, Balia, Topchanchi and Govindpur.

Climate of Dhanbad

Climate of Dhanbad is a transition between humid subtropical climate and tropical wet and dry climate. Dhanbad generally faces dryness in terms of climate but weather becomes pleasant during winter season. It receives heavy rainfall approximately 1300 ml annually. From last week of March to middle of June is considered as summer season, in which weather remains extremely hot and temperature remains around minimum 25 degrees Celcius and can reach upto maximum 47 degrees Celcius.

After that, monsoon breaks in and remains until middle of October when temperature lowers down and humidity starts increasing. It is considered as rainy season from July to October. It receives heavy rainfall during monsoon and July and August are the wettest months of the year. Average rainfall recorded in the months of July and August is 287 mm and 445 mm respectively. Area around Parasnath hills is considered to received more than average rainfall. The Average annual rainfall in Dhanbad district is recorded 1300 mm. approximately.

Thereafter, weather becomes cold and pleasant during winter season in the months of November to February providing relief from heat and heavy rain both. Weather remains cold and awesome during winter as temperature remains minimum 12 degrees C to maximum 22 degrees C.

Topography of Dhanbad

Dhanbad is bounded by Dumka district in the north side, by Giridih and Bokaro districts in the west side and by Purulia district that comes under West Bengal in the east and south sides. It is located on Chota Nagpur Plateau, which is full of several types of minerals. Due to this specific reason, Dhanbad has an abundance of coal and famous as ‘The Coal Capital of India’. It is a major centre of coal mines and coal mining industries in India.

Physical features of Dhanbad

Dhanbad district basically consists of three natural divisions. North and North western parts consist of hilly area, coal mines and most of the industries have been set up in the uplands and rest of the uplands and plains lie to the south direction of Damodar River containing cultivate plain lands. 

Dhangi hills are located in the western middle portion of the district extending from Pradhankhanta to Govindpur.

The highest peak of this area is Dhangi Pahar having an average altitude of 1256 feet at Dhangi. In north side, Parasnath Hills are extending through Topchanchi and Tundi, reaching highest elevation of 1500 feet at Lalki. Whereas, entire southern part of this district contains undulating land and the general slope is from northwest to southeast.

Demography of Dhanbad

According to last recorded Indian Provisional Census in 2011, population of Dhanbad was around 2, 684, 487 million out of which 53% were male and rest 47 % were female. Almost 10.57% population of Dhanbad is under age of 5 years. With an average literacy rate of 75.71% Dhanbad has 85.78% male literacy and 64.70% female literacy. Dhanbad is home to people of many religions, of which 81% are Hindu, 71% are Muslims, 1% is Christians and 1% belongs to other religions including Sikhs and Buddhists.

Rivers in Dhanbad

Damodar and Barakar are two important rivers of Dhanbad. Damodar is major river of Chota Nagpur plateau that rises in Palamu and flows toward east direction between the two plateaus of Ranchi and Hazaribag. Bokaro, Konar and Barakar rivers join it later. 

Then Damodar joins a stream, Jamuria which marks out western boundary of Dhanabad district with Hazaribagh district. Katri River rises in foothills below Parasnath hills and then traverses through coal fields where it joins Damodar River towards east.

Rivers in Dhanbad

Thereafter, Damodar River is joined by Barakar River at its eastern border near Chirkunda and flows for approx. 77 km through the district. Barakar River forming northern boundary of the district traverses for about 77 km in the district. 

Barakar flows in the southwestern direction till it reaches Durgapur and runs to south until it joins Damodar River near Chirkunda. Apart from these rivers some small rivers that flow in the Dhanbad district are Gobai, Irji, and Khudia.

Soil Texture of Dhanbad

Dhanbad district has red and sandy soil that is not so fertile. Thus, soil of this region is by and large lethargic in nature. Due to this nature, soil of Dhanbad is not that good for agricultural purpose.

Vegetation of Dhanbad

Being situated in Chota Nagpur Plateau, Dhanbad district has shortage of forests and contains dry deciduous forest. Due to presence of tropical and sub tropical dry broadleaf forests, flora of this region is different from other wetter parts of India. 

Forests are present in Northern hilly region and mostly Sal, Sisam, Gamhar, Mahua, Imaly, Bhelwa trees are found in these forests. Whereas, major crops of this region are wheat, maize and paddy. People are also doing Sericulture in many of these forests.

Dams in Dhanbad

Dhanbad has two dams, viz., Maithon Dam and Panchet Dam. Maithon Dam has been built on Barakar River and located about 45 km from Dhanbad. It is basically designed by Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) for flood control. This dam is the biggest reservoir of DVC which has Maithon Power Station, an exclusive underground power station that is first of its kind, in entire South East Asia. This power station generates 60,000 K.W. per hour.

Dams in Dhanbad

Panchet Dam is built on Damodar River and extends for about 6 km roughly. It is about 9 km from Chirkunda and 54 km from Dhanbad. This dam was built across Damodar River at Panchet and opened first time in 1959. It has one Hydel station that generates 40,000 K.W. per hour.

Geography of Dhanbad at Glance

Country: India
State: Jharkhand
Region: Chota Nagpur Plateau
District: Dhanbad
Geographical Area: 2086 sq km
Altitude: 761 feet (232 m) above sea level
Latitude: 24.4 degrees N
Longitude: 86.50 degrees E
Population (2011): 2, 684, 487 million
Average Temperature: 47 degrees C (Max), 12 degrees C (Min)
Rainfall: 1310.6 mm
Best Time to Visit: September to May
Time Zone: IST (UTC +5:30)
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